Archive for category code
I’ve spent the last 24 hours at the SXSW Music Hackathon championship. For my hack I’ve built something called The Autocanonizer. It takes any song and tries to make a canon out of it. A canon is a song that can be played against a copy of itself. The Autocanonizer does this by looking at the detailed audio in the song (via The Echo Nest analysis), and looks for parts of the song that might overlap well. It builds a map of all these parts and when it plays the song it plays the main audio, while overlapping it with the second audio stream. It doesn’t always work, but when it does, the results can be quite fun and sometimes quite pleasing.
To go along with the playback I created a visualization that shows the song and the two virtual tape heads that are playing the song. You can click on the visualization to hear particular bits.
There are some audio artifacts on a few songs still. I know how to fix it, but it requires some subtle math (subtraction) that I’m sure I’ll mess up right before the hackathon demo if I attempt it now, so it will have to wait for another day. Also, there’s a Firefox issue that I will fix in the coming days. Or you can go and fix all this yourself because the code is on github.
In my recent regional listening preferences post I published a map that showed the distinctive artists by state. The map was rather popular, but unfortunately was a source of confusion for some who thought that the map was showing the favorite artist by state. A few folks have asked what the map of favorite artists per state would look like and how it would compare to the distinctive map. Here are the two maps for comparison.
Favorite Artists by State
This map shows the most played artist in each state over the last year. It is interesting to see the regional differences in favorite artists and how just a handful of artists dominates the listening of wide areas of the country.
Most Distinctive Artists by State
This is the previously published map that shows the artists that are listened to proportionally more frequently in a particular state than they are in all of the United States.
The data for both maps is drawn from an aggregation of data across a wide range of music services powered by The Echo Nest and is based on the listening behavior of a quarter million online music listeners.
It is interesting to see that even when we consider just the most popular artists, we can see regionalisms in listening preferences. I’ve highlighted the regions with color on this version of the map:
Favorite Artist Regions
My hack at the MIDEM Music Hack Day this year is what I’d call a Creative Hack. I built it, not because it answered any business use case or because it demonstrated some advanced capability of some platform or music tech ecosystem, I built it because I was feeling creative and I wanted to express my creativity in the best way that I can which is to write a computer program. The result is something I’m particularly proud of. It’s a dynamic visualization of the song Burn by Ellie Goulding. Here’s a short, low-res excerpt, but I strongly suggest that you go and watch the full version here: Cannes Burn
Unlike all of the other hacks that I’ve built, this one feels really personal to me. I wasn’t just trying to solve a technical problem. I was trying to capture the essence of the song in code, trying to tell its story and maybe even touch the viewer. The challenge wasn’t in the coding it was in the feeling.
After every hack day, I’m usually feeling a little depressed. I call it post-hacking depression. It is partially caused by being sleep deprived for 48 hours, but the biggest component is that I’ve put my all into something for 48 hours and then it is just over. The demo is done, the code is checked into github, the app is deployed online and people are visiting it (or not). The thing that just totally and completely took over my life for two days is completely gone. It is easy to reflect back on the weekend and wonder if all that time and energy was worth it.
Monday night after the MIDEM hack day was over I was in the midst of my post-hack depression sitting in a little pub called Le Crillon when a guy came up to me and said “I saw your hack. It made me feel something. Your hack moved me.”
Cannes Burn won’t be my post popular hack, nor is it my most challenging hack, but it may be my favorite hack because I was able to write some code and make somebody that I didn’t know feel something.
Today at the Echo Nest we are pushing out an update to our Genre APIs. The new APIs lets you get all sorts of information about any of over 800 genres including a description of the genre, representative artists in the genre, similar genres, and links to web resources for the genre (such as a wikipedia page, if one exists for a genre). You can also use the genres to create various types of playlists. With these APIs you build all sorts of music exploration apps like Every Noise At Once, Music Popcorn and Genre-A-Day.
The new APIs are quite simple to use. Here are a few python examples created using pyen.
List all of the available genres with a description
This outputs text like so:
We can get the top artists for any genre like so:
Here are the top artists for ‘cool jazz’
We can find similar genres to any genre with this bit of code:
% python sim_genres.py cool jazz bebop jazz hard bop contemporary post-bop soul jazz big band jazz christmas stride jazz funk jazz fusion avant-garde jazz free jazz
We can use the genres to create excellent genre playlists. To do so, create a playlist of type ‘genre-radio’ and give the genre name as a seed. We’ve also added a new parameter called ‘genre_preset’ that, if specified will control the type of songs that will be added to the playlist. You can chose from core, in_rotation, and emerging. Core genre playlists are great for introducing a new listener to the genre. Here’s a bit of code that generates a core playlist for any genre:
The core classic rock playlist looks like this:
- Simple Man by Lynyrd Skynyrd
- Born To Be Wild by Steppenwolf
- All Along The Watchtower by Jimi Hendrix
- Kashmir by Led Zeppelin
- Sunshine Of Your Love by Cream
- Let’s Work Together by Canned Heat
- Gimme Shelter by The Rolling Stones
- It’s My Life by The Animals
- 30 Days In The Hole by Humble Pie
- Midnight Rider by The Allman Brothers Band
- The Joker by Steve Miller Band
- Fortunate Son by Creedence Clearwater Revival
- Black Betty by Ram Jam
- Heart Full Of Soul by The Yardbirds
- Light My Fire by The Doors
The ‘in rotation’ classic rock playlist looks like this:
- Heaven on Earth by Boston
- Doom And Gloom by The Rolling Stones
- Little Black Submarines by The Black Keys
- I Gotsta Get Paid by ZZ Top
- Fly Like An Eagle by Steve Miller Band
- Blue On Black by Kenny Wayne Shepherd
- Driving Towards The Daylight by Joe Bonamassa
- When A Blind Man Cries by Deep Purple
- Over and Over (Live) by Joe Walsh
- The Best Is Yet To Come by Scorpions
- World Boss by Gov’t Mule
- One Way Out by The Allman Brothers Band
- Corned Beef City by Mark Knopfler
- Bleeding Heart by Jimi Hendrix
- My Sharona by The Knack
While the emerging ‘classic rock’ playlist looks like this:
- If You Were in Love by Boston
- Beggin’ by Shocking Blue
- Speak Now by The Answer
- Mystic Highway by John Fogerty
- Hell Of A Season by The Black Keys
- No Reward by Gov’t Mule
- Pretty Wasted by Tito & Tarantula
- The Battle Of Evermore by Page & Plant
- I Got All You Need by Joe Bonamassa
- What You Gonna Do About Me by Buddy Guy
- I Used To Could by Mark Knopfler
- Wrecking Ball by Joe Walsh
- The Circle by Black Country Communion
- You Could Have Been a Lady by April Wine
- 15 Lonely by Walter Trout
The new Genre APIs are really quite fun to use. I’m looking forward to seeing a whole new world of music exploration and discovery apps built around these APIs.
The Echo Nest knows about 800 genres of music (and that number is growing all the time). Among those 800 genres are ones that you already know about, like ‘jazz’,’rock’ and ‘classical’. But there are also hundreds of genres that you’ve probably never heard of. Genres like Filthstep, Dangdut or Skweee. Perhaps the best way to explore the genre space is via Every Noise at Once (built by Echo Nest genre-master Glenn McDonald). Every Noise At Once shows you the whole genre space, allowing you to explore the rich and varied universe of music. However, Every Noise at Once can be like drinking Champagne from a firehose – there’s just too much to take in all at once (it is, after all, every noise – at once). If you’d like to take a slower and more measured approach to learning about new music genres, you may be interested in Genre-A-Day.
Genre-A-Day is a web app that presents a new genre every day. Genre-A-Day tells you about the genre, shows you some representative artists for the genre, lets you explore similar genres, and lets you listen to music in the genre.
If you spend a few minutes every day reading about and listening to a new genre, after a few months you’ll be a much more well-rounded music listener, and after a few years your knowledge of genres will rival most musicologists’.
An easy way to make Genre-A-Day part of your daily routine is to follow @GenreADay on twitter. GenreADay will post a single tweet, once a day like so:
Under the hood – Genre-A-Day was built using the just released genre methods of The Echo Nest API. These methods allow you to get detailed info on the set of genres, the top artists for the genres, similar genres and so on. It also uses the super nifty genre presets in the playlist API that allow you to craft the genre-radio listener for someone who is new to the genre (core), for someone who is a long time listener of the genre (in rotation), or for someone looking for the newest music in that genre (emerging). The source code for Genre-A-Day is on github.
For my Christmas vacation programming project this year, I revisited an old hack: Six Degrees of Black Sabbath. I wrote the original, way back in 2010 at the very first San Francisco Music Hack Day. That version is still up and running, and getting regular visits, but it is getting a bit long in the tooth and so I’ve given it a total rewrite from the ground up. The result is the new Six Degrees of Black Sabbath:
Six Degrees of Black Sabbath is like the Oracle of Bacon but for music. It lets you find connections to just about any two artists based upon their collaborations. Type in the name of two artists, and 6dobs will give you a pathway showing the connections that will get you from one artist to another. For instance, if you enter ‘The Beatles’ and ‘Norah Jones’ you’ll get a path like:
- We start with The Beatles
- The Beatles had member George Harrison
- George Harrison performed with Ravi Shankar on the song Bangla Dhun and 26 others.
- Ravi Shankar was parent of Norah Jones
If you don’t like a particular connection, you can bypass it generating a new path. For instance, if we bypass Ravi Shankar, it will take us eight steps to get to Norah Jones from the Beatles:
The Beatles -> Paul McCartney -> The Fireman -> Youth -> Pigface
-> Mike Dillon ->Garage A Trois -> Charlie Hunter -> Norah Jones
Not all connections are created equal. Mick Jagger and Keith Richards have been playing together for over 50 years in the Rolling Stones. That’s a much stronger connection than the one between Mick Jagger and Fergie for performing a single song together at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. We take these connection strengths into account when finding paths between artists. Preference is given to stronger connections, even if those stronger connections will yield a longer path.
The new version of Six Degrees of Black Sabbath has a number of new features:
Video – Each step in a path is represented by a Youtube video – often with a video by the two artists that represent that step. I’m quite pleased at how well the video works for establishing the connection between two artists. Youtube seems to have it all.
Live stats – The app tracks and reports all sorts of things such as the longest path discovered so far, the most frequently occurring artists on paths, the most connected artists, most searched for artists and so on.
Larger database of connections – the database has about a quarter million artists and 2.5 million artist-to-artist connections.
Autocomplete for artist names – no need to try to remember how to spell ‘Britney Spears‘ – just start typing the parts you know and it will sort it out.
Spiffier looking UI – It still looks like it was designed by an engineer, but at least it looks like it was designed in this decade by an engineer.
Path finding improvements – faster and better paths throughout.
Revisiting this app after 4 years was a lot of fun. I got to dive deep into a bunch of tech that was new to me including Redis, Bootstrap 3, and the YouTube video search API. I spent many hours untangling the various connections in the new Musicbrainz schema. I took a tour through a number of Pythonic network graph libraries (Networkx, igraph and graph-tool), I learned a lot about Python garbage collection when you have a 2.5gb heap.
Give the app a try and let me know what you think.
Back in 2001 when the first iPod was released, Shuffle Play was all the rage. Your iPod had your 1,000 favorite songs on it, so picking songs at random to play created a pretty good music listening experience. Today, however, we don’t have 1,000 songs in our pocket. With music services like Rdio, Rhapsody or Spotify, we are walking around with millions of songs in our pocket. I’ve often wondered what it would be like to use Shuffle Play when you have millions of songs to shuffle through. Would it be a totally horrible listening experience listening to artists that are so far down the long tail that they don’t even know that they are part of a dog? Would you suffer from terminal iPod whiplash as you are jerked between Japanese teen pop and a John Philip Sousa march?
To answer these questions, I built an app called Million Song Shuffle. This app will create a playlist by randomly selecting songs from a pool of many millions of songs. It draws from the Rdio collection and if you are an Rdio user you can hear listen to the full tracks.
The app also takes advantage of a nifty new set of data returned by the Echo Nest API. It shows you the absolute hotttnesss rank for the song and the artist, so you will always know how deep you are into the long tail (answer: almost always, very deep).
So how is listening to millions of songs at random? Surprisingly, it’s not too bad. The playlist certainly gets a high score for eclecticism and surprise, and most of the time the music is quite listenable. But give it a try, and form your own opinion.
Its fun, too, to see how long you can listen to the Million Song Shuffle before you encounter a song or even an artist that you’ve heard of before. If the artist is not in the top 5K artists, it is likely you’ve never heard of them. After listening to Million Song Shuffle for a little while you start to get an idea of how much music there is out there. There’s a lot.
For the ultimate eclectic music listening experience, try the Million Song Shuffle.